Afilias is a technology company that helps people get their own top-level domains and can provide the necessary technology to support it. They have assisted in making many TLDs, such as .info, .pro, .vote, and many more. ICANN is the governing organization that accepts applications for new TLDs. This has previously cost $185,000 and it opens only every few years.
To get your own TLD, you need to submit a completed, detailed application and fee (likely around $200,000) to ICANN. Then, ICANN will evaluate the application (and Afilias can help with this). If approved, you can proceed to launching with domain registrars.
Yes, the application fee is high, but it's what covers ICANN's hiring subject experts to properly and thoroughly evaluate applications.
If you start your own TLD, you'll have to implement security measures. But you can also set and police eligibility requirements and acceptable uses.
With new and sometimes unrecognizable TLDs, we need to use context and language to help clarify that something is a URL. People will soon get used to seeing these different web addresses, without your having to use “www.” or “http://” to clarify.
Video by Daniel J. Lewis.
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